Mokslininkai sukuria kristalus, kurie generuoja elektrą iš šilumos


Ankstesniuose termoelektriniuose prietaisuose naudojami brangūs ir toksiški elementai. Dabar mokslininkai sukūrė nebrangius kristalus, sudarytus iš vario, mangano, germanio ir sieros, kurie gali efektyviai paversti šilumą elektra.

Sintetinis sulfidinis mineralas, pasižymintis termoelektrinėmis savybėmis.

Stengiantis efektyviai šilumą paversti elektra, lengvai prieinamos medžiagos iš nekenksmingų žaliavų atveria naujas saugių ir nebrangių vadinamųjų termoelektrinių medžiagų kūrimo perspektyvas. Remiantis neseniai žurnale paskelbtu tyrimu, sintetinis vario mineralas įgauna sudėtingą struktūrą ir mikrostruktūrą paprastų jo sudėties pakeitimų dėka, taip padėdamas pamatą norimoms savybėms. taikomoji chemija.

Naujoji sintetinė medžiaga yra sudaryta iš vario, mangano, germanio ir sieros, ir ji gaminama gana paprastu būdu, aiškina medžiagų mokslininkas Emmanuelis Guilmeau, CRISMAT laboratorijos CNRS tyrėjas Caen mieste, Prancūzija, kuris yra atitinkamas tyrimo autorius. . „Milteliai tiesiog mechaniškai legiruojami rutuliniu malimu, kad susidarytų iš anksto kristalizuota fazė, kuri vėliau tankinama 600 laipsnių[{” attribute=””>Celsius. This process can be easily scaled up,” he says.

Thermoelectric materials convert heat to electricity. This is especially useful in industrial processes where waste heat is reused as valuable electric power. The converse approach is the cooling of electronic parts, for example, in smartphones or cars. Materials used in these kinds of applications have to be not only efficient, but also inexpensive and, above all, safe for health.

However, thermoelectric devices used to date make use of expensive and toxic elements such as lead and tellurium, which offer the best conversion efficiency. To find safer alternatives, Emmanuel Guilmeau and his team have turned to derivatives of natural copper-based sulfide minerals. These mineral derivatives are mainly composed of nontoxic and abundant elements, and some of them have thermoelectric properties.

Now, the team has succeeded in producing a series of thermoelectric materials showing two crystal structures within the same material. “We were very surprised at the result. Usually, slightly changing the composition has little effect on the structure in this class of materials,” says Emmanuel Guilmeau describing their discovery.

The team found that replacing a small fraction of the manganese with copper produced complex microstructures with interconnected nanodomains, defects, and coherent interfaces, which affected the material’s transport properties for electrons and heat.

Emmanuel Guilmeau says that the novel material produced is stable up to 400 degrees Celsius (750 degrees Fahrenheit

The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale, named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit and based on one he proposed in 1724. In the Fahrenheit temperature scale, the freezing point of water freezes is 32 °F and water boils at 212 °F, a 180 °F separation, as defined at sea level and standard atmospheric pressure. 

” data-gt-translate-attributes=”[{” attribute=””>Fahrenheit), a range well within the waste heat temperature range of most industries. He is convinced that, based on this discovery, novel cheaper, and nontoxic thermoelectric materials could be designed to replace more problematic materials.

Reference: “Engineering Transport Properties in Interconnected Enargite-Stannite Type Cu2+xMn1−xGeS4 Nanocomposites” by Dr. V. Pavan Kumar, S. Passuti, Dr. B. Zhang, Dr. S. Fujii, K. Yoshizawa, Dr. P. Boullay, Dr. S. Le Tonquesse, Dr. C. Prestipino, Prof. B. Raveau, Prof. P. Lemoine, Dr. A. Paecklar, Dr. N. Barrier, Prof. X. Zhou, Prof. M. Yoshiya, Dr. K. Suekuni, Dr. E. Guilmeau, 13 September 2022, Angewandte Chemie International Edition.
DOI: 10.1002/anie.202210600

Funding: Agence Nationale de la Recherche, Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

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